• dB Defined
    dB Defined
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    A decibel (dB) is a ratio unit for expressing signal amplitudes. If the amplitudes are expressed in voltage: dB=20 log (V1/V2). If the amplitudes are expressed in power: dB=10 log (P1/P2). In digital audio systems, decibels are often expressed in dBFS, the voltage value below the value produced by a full scale digital audio signal….

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  • Impedance Simplified
    Impedance Simplified
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    Impedance is the resistance of audio circuits to audio signals. Any audio input has an impedance, as does any audio output. Modern input stages are typically high impedance, often 10 kOhms or higher. These inputs accept the input signal without demanding power from the prior equipment output. For accurate amplification, it is generally accepted that…

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  • Connecting a TX-1A Backwards
    Connecting a TX-1A Backwards
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    The TX-1A is used primarily for galvanic isolation and format conversion between equipment. Conversion from -10 dBV consumer level up to +4 dBu professional level requires voltage gain. The transformer in the TX-1A has a 1:1 ratio and uses an adjustable attenuator circuit at its output to lower the output signal to the level required….

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  • The Difference Between Balanced and Unbalanced Audio
    The Difference Between Balanced and Unbalanced Audio
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    Balanced audio carries equal but opposite signals on two conductors. These symmetrical signals are relatively immune from induced hum and noise. Frequently, balanced cables also are shielded. The shield is independent from either of the signal conductors. Unbalanced audio is carried on a single conductor relative to the shield. In unbalanced cables, the shield is…

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